Senior Leadership Assessment Inventory

SLAI Image

Interpretive Report

The Senior Leadership Assessment Inventory (SLAI) is an instrument intended to measure the factors needed for successful leadership at the most senior levels of an organization. The instrument organizes evaluative feedback into several domanins for senior leaders regardin leadership competencies; both their strengths and areas of potential growth.

Disclaimer: The interpretive information contained in this report should be viewed as only one source of hypotheses about the leadership competence of the individual being evaluated. No decisions should be based solely on the information contained in this report. This report was generated as a result of participation in a leadership competency research program. The results contained within this report are confidential and are intended for training and developmental purposes only.

SLAI Interpretive Report

by: Patrick Sherry, Ph.D.

Interpretive Report



The SLAI is designed to measure your leadership competencies and provide information about how you and others view your leadership and managerial skills and behaviors. A leadership competency is a measurable, behavioral characteristic of a person that is related to effective performance in a specific job, organization, or culture. Competencies are distinct sets of behaviors applied to reliably complete a task that is directly linked to a critical outcome. These characteristics are defined in terms of specific leadership behaviors, and therefore can be developed. Leadership competencies commonly group together behaviors or similar behaviors. Please find a description of the specific behavioral skills that make up each competency in the paragraphs below. To eenable you to better understand your competencies a series of charts and graphs will follow that depict the extent of your competencies, according to the assessments of you and your rater. The feedback provided in this report can help you identify the competencies you have mastered and also offer insight on the competencies that you may wish to further develop or continue to devote attention.

Interpretive Instructions

In this report you will find your scores that have been organized into 12 primary leadership competencies. Your own assessment of each leadership competency is presented first by itself, and then it is compared to the average competency rating for persons in similar positions in your organization.   In other words, you will first see your score on each competency and then a comparison to the average score obtained on the competency by others in similar positions in your organization. It is important to remember that the results in this report are simply one measure of your abilities and should NOT BE interpreted in isolation from other feedback about your leadership abilities. Please keep in mind that there may be several reasons why you scored above or below average on certain competencies. Thus, even though a below average score can be a good way to identify future areas of concentration to improve performance, below average scores DO NOT automatically indicate that you are below average in regards to abilities in that area.   Finally, for each compentency, this feedback report contains links to resources and ideas for action that can be utilized for personal development.

The Charts

Chart 1 provides a snapshot of how you rated your leadership abilities on each of the competencies making up the 6 leadership competency clusters measured by the LSFI. To interpret these results, please notice high and low score areas to determine your leadership strengths and areas for growth. The scores have been converted to a standardized score (T score) to allow for meaningful comparison across each competency. Later in the report you will find a listing of the behavioral characteristics that comprise each competency. Please review the behaviors that determine your competency scores for development purposes.

In most jobs, it is helpful to know your areas of lesser talent, as your lesser talent areas can lead to a weakness. As you observe your high and low score areas in the chart above, see if you can identify a few areas in which you are lacking in talent. In most cases, simply gaining awareness of a deficit or perceived deficit can lead to tremendous growth in your capability of managing that talent area and ultimately prevent it from becoming a road block.

Chart 2 lists the same competencies as Chart 1 but shows the average measure for all managers who submitted a self-Assessment.

Chart 3 shows how you assessed your own leadership abilities compared to the average for all managers providing self-assessments.  Each of the specific competencies underlying the primary six competency clusters is shown. This chart is intended to provide you with a snap shot of how you rank on each leadership competency in comparison to your peers. Group averages were determined based on the entire sample of NE&TO managers that completed the LSFI.

Chart 4 shows how you assessed your own leadership abilities compared to the average of all assessments made by your peers.  This includes anyone that completed the feedback form on your behalf including supervisors, direct reports, other peers and customers.  Again, each of the specific competencies underlying the primary twelve competency clusters is shown. This chart is intended to provide you with a measure of how, as a group, key individuals rank you on each leadership competency.  Below you will find definitions for each competency, ideas for development, and resources for growth.

Chart 5 shows how you assessed your own leadership abilities compared to the average of all assessments made by individuals identifying themselves as your Direct Reports.  This measure does not include supervisors, customers or anyone else from whom you requested feedback.  Again, each of the specific competencies underlying the twelve primary competency clusters is shown.

Chart 6 shows how you assessed your own leadership abilities compared to the assessment submitted by your supervisor.  This chart does not include assessments completed by any other peers such as, direct reports, other peers or customers.  All of the specific competencies underlying the primary six competency clusters is shown.

Chart 7 reflects data for your department only.  This chart shows the average self-assessment ratings for all those who participated in your department versus the average ratings provided as feedback by members of your department.  All competencies are reflected in a line chart format.  As with all the charts, you can obtain exact ratings by hovering your mouse over any portion of the chart.  Below you will find definitions for each competency, ideas for development, and resources for growth.


Chart 8

Ratings by Item: Self-Assessment vs. Avg. of All Observers including Observer Variance (STD)

1Fosters identification of new ideas and products 46.000.00
2Encourages new and better processes 66.000.00
3Rewards innovation 66.000.00
4Always seeking a better way 46.000.00
5Says it “doesn’t help our department” or “Not invented here” or “this is the way we did it at AT&T” or “we’ve always done it this way” 66.000.00
6Recognizes genius ideas 45.000.00
7Creates a positive environment to foster out of the box thinking 66.000.00
8Takes a new or innovative idea and combines it with the business strategy needed to make a truly great product that sets the stage for the industry across the backbone 56.000.00
9Ties the new ideas together with other ideas to make them work in the org and for the customer 44.000.00
10Works hard to achieve common goals 45.000.00
11Works to identify and align goals to reduce internal competition 66.000.00
12Consistently draws on strengths of other teams to produce synergistic cooperation 55.000.00
13Ignores boundaries and Includes multiple disciplines on projects 66.000.00
14Considers the impact on other parts of the organization when making a decision 45.000.00
15Behaves as if we were all “One COMCAST” 66.000.00
16Puts up roadblocks 65.000.00
17Blocks access to resources 65.000.00
18Develops shared mutual goals 55.000.00
19Proactively brings people together 44.000.00
20Focused exchange and sharing of information up & down throughout the organization 66.000.00
21Collaborates with others even when no immediate pay off to self 66.000.00
22Does what he/she says will do 66.000.00
23Keeps others informed when deviating from the plan 66.000.00
24Keeps his/her word 66.000.00
25Gives others credit for contributions 66.000.00
26Engenders the trust of others in the organization 66.000.00
27Takes responsibility for informing all concerned parties of needed actions 66.000.00
28Owns mistakes 54.000.00
29Makes it safe to talk about weaknesses & mistakes 56.000.00
30Is ok with admitting own mistakes 56.000.00
31Keeps confidences 44.000.00
32Micromanages 44.000.00
33Sees a plan through to timely completion 34.000.00
34Prepares for inevitable pot holes & pit falls and develops plans to overcome 66.000.00
35Tests procedures for consistency & reliability to a “six sigma (6?)” standard 66.000.00
36Does what it takes to get it done 66.000.00
37Has an end to end understanding of the process and the system 56.000.00
38Prepares and trains team for flawless execution 56.000.00
39Assess the risk and plans for it 66.000.00
40Flexible in adjusting to changing circumstances 56.000.00
41Doesn’t break a lot of glass 65.000.00
42Keeps the focus on results at all times 56.000.00
43Looks carefully at the landscape and sees opportunities for the future 66.000.00
44Consistently grasps the big picture of the business environment 56.000.00
45Brings together new ideas and concepts from other industries and disciplines to discussions on new products and directions to provide value to paying customersIntegrates market information to develop effective plans 46.000.00
46Can map strategy onto the day to day operations 66.000.00
47Finds and develops new markets for new products 56.000.00
48Points out that we are on the wrong path or solving the wrong problem 66.000.00
49Translates strategy into action 66.000.00
50Will focus on building this “one little thing” 66.000.00
51Takes time to think about and discuss the overall direction of the company 56.000.00
52Anticipates what others need to know in order to maximize the effectiveness of the entire organization. 55.000.00
53Ties his decisions, even the unpopular ones, to business needs 55.000.00
54Effectively delivers the message to multiple levels of the organization 66.000.00
55Engages others in two-way exchange to ensure understanding and receipt of the message 56.000.00
56Promotes a climate of information sharing 55.000.00
57Asks questions to obtain information 45.000.00
58Makes people feel understood 66.000.00
59Listens attentively to others concerns 46.000.00
60Demonstrates empathy for staff and other audiences 56.000.00
61Relates well to DIFFERENT audiences 65.000.00
62Makes people feel like they were listened to 55.000.00
63Is concise and easily understandable 56.000.00
64Will challenge the status quo 66.000.00
65Will speak up if has concerns 55.000.00
66Asks questions that go beyond what is simply required 66.000.00
67Looks to do the right thing 46.000.00
68Confronts dysfunctional or unproductive behavior directly 46.000.00
69Makes the lonely decision 55.000.00
70Stands for his/her convictions in the face of adversity 66.000.00
71Has the courage to fail 54.000.00
72Blames others 66.000.00
73Puts self and personal reputation on the line as needed (js) 56.000.00
74Takes the time to promote others career development 56.000.00
75Provides consistent feedback to others 56.000.00
76Provides others with consistent support needed to learn new skills 55.000.00
77Develops relationships that mentor and facilitate growth 56.000.00
78Will have the “tough” conversation needed to get people back on track 66.000.00
79Places a high value on coaching and developing others 66.000.00
80Adapts leadership style to the needs and developmental readiness of his/her followers 66.000.00
81Communicates an expectation of exceptional performance. 56.000.00
82Lets people know with expectations that they can outperform themselves 55.000.00
83Can talk about a person’s weaknesses in the form of challenges that can be met instead of as personal deficiencies. 66.000.00
84Ethical 55.000.00
85Is able to self-monitor 56.000.00
86Asks for feedback 46.000.00
87Balances work and personal life 66.000.00
88Has a good internal compass 46.000.00
89Challenges self to achieve additional growth 66.000.00
90Accountable and responsible 55.000.00
91Puts self on line for results and accepts consequences 46.000.00
92Sets a really good example 66.000.00
93Makes tough decisions about people 34.000.00
94Is a really good role model 54.000.00
95Typifies the consummate Comcast professional 54.000.00
96Demonstrates a high degree of integrity 64.000.00
97Approaches dealings with customers and internal business partners with a high degree of professionalism 45.000.00
98Demonstrates an appropriate and balanced degree of ccountability across boundaries for functional NEATO and COMCAST. 46.000.00
99Actively seeks input and reactions from customers and internal business partners. 46.000.00
100Has developed an empathy for customers and internal business partners needs and requirements56.000.00
101Puts customers and internal business partners concerns ahead of others66.000.00
102Does not lose sight of the goal of customers and internal business partners satisfaction12.000.00
103Reminds others of the need for customer and internal business partners focus65.000.00
104Conducts studies on customer satisfaction54.000.00
105Redesigns products based on customers and internal business partners input64.000.00
106Cant articulate customers and internal business partners needs and expectations66.000.00
107Works without considering impact on customers, end users and internal business partners.46.000.00
108Is aware of the needs of both customers and internal business partners.66.000.00
109Misses opportunities to fully engage and add value for customers and internal business partners66.000.00
110Partners effectively across COMCAST to effectively serve the paying customer66.000.00

Competency Cluster Definitions

Cluster 1: Credible Leadership

The Credible Leadership scale is a measure of the degree of integrity and ethics that the leader possesses and utilizes in decision-making and leadership practices. It is also intended to be a measure of technical abilities. A portion of this cluster is comprised of safety management practices. Credible leadership is thought to be leadership that is driven by honesty, trustworthiness, fairness and moral judgment.

High scores on the Credible Leadership scale indicate that the individual is honest, trustworthy, and fair. They most likely demonstrate respect for employees at all levels of the organization, appreciate diverse opinions and ideas, and demonstrate high personal standards. Leaders that score high on this scale also possess technical expertise and value safety. They would most likely put emphasis on the safe performance of the job over getting the job done.

Low scores indicate the need to focus future training efforts on developing stronger personal standards in the face of conflict. Further, focusing on being able to make decisions based on high ethical standards, developing greater appreciation for diverse opinions in decision-making and problem-solving, and the ability to collaborate with diverse co-workers, will all be beneficial in improving overall leadership competence. Finally, lower scores indicate a perception by others that the leader does not follow safety policies and procedures. Indeed, leaders with below average scores on this cluster may be perceived by others as more concerned with production then safety.


1: Integrity
Is honest and trustworthy; makes ethical decisions when faced with conflicting choices; puts business ahead of personal agendas; demonstrates respect for employees at all levels of the organization; demonstrates high personal standards; appreciates different ideas and perspectives; values people over production.

2: Technical Knowledge
Is able to use software and other technologies effectively; exercises fiscal responsibility; allocates equipment and resources appropriately; is capable of answering technical questions within his/her area.

3: Safety Culture Management
Puts the safe performance of the job first; uses the best safety practices available; promotes a culture of safety; holds meaningful and constructive safety meetings; focuses on identifying the root cause of safety incidents and not on placing blame; is a model for the use of safe work practices; provides necessary training and/or tools to safely perform the job.

The Safety Culture Management competency is a group of behavioral characteristics found to relate to outstanding safety practices. This cluster is meant to be a measure of skill in performing various behaviors related to the best safety management practices.

High Safety Culture Management scores indicate a strong value for safety. Leaders who score high in this area regularly perform behaviors that are thought to be critical for the safe performance of the job. They most likely utilize resources available to them to enhance safety and promote a culture of safety (i. e. , model safe practices such as putting on a helmet, reinforce someone reporting a safety issue even if it slows down the work, etc. ).

Low Safety Culture Management scores indicate a tendency of the leader to allow work to be done despite safety measures being put in place and maintained. Individuals who score below the mean in this area may not know how to productively confront unsafe work habits of subordinates or know how to identify the root cause of safety incidents.

Cluster 2: Innovative Leadership

The Innovative Leadership cluster is a measure of one's ability to strategically and creatively approach problems in a composed, creative manner while considering the strengths and input of those around them. This cluster assesses one's ability to come up with new ideas and solutions to recurring problems, ability to bring out innovation in those around them, and skill in finding new ways to approach ongoing conflicts.

High scores on the Innovative Leadership cluster suggests that coming up with and carrying out effective ideas and plans is a key strength of the leader. High scores in this area indicate that the leader is most likely able to rally support for important organizational initiatives. They probably tend to be able to consider the effects of various forces on business outcomes and pull from multiple sources to achieve a coordinated result. Further, individuals who score above the manager mean for their organization are most likely perceived by others as having clear judgment, strong decision-making skills, and an excellent understanding of how to approach conflict situations.

Low scorers in this cluster most likely find it difficult to rally support for important initiatives. Individuals who score low on this cluster area may tend to lack the ability to come up with new ideas under pressure. Someone who scores low on this cluster may find it difficult to clearly describe a problem, consider multiple forces on business at once, facilitate a committee's decision-making process, or deal effectively with conflict in groups.


4: Innovative
Acts as a catalyst to a committee's decision-making process; comes up with new ideas and solutions to recurring problems; is able to use conflict in groups effectively; encourages innovation & risk taking.

5: Strategic
Knows how to develop long range strategic plans; can convince others that certain changes are critical to the benefit of the entire organization; considers the effects of broad societal forces on business; is able to clearly describe a problem; successfully manages the budget to insure that all jobs have adequate resources.

6: Judgment
Is able to incorporate information from various sources to make the correct decision; adheres to the chain of command in solving problems; utilizes a framework for decision making that includes the policies and values of the organization; promotes needed changes.

7: Problem-Solver
Is prepared to make difficult decisions; knows when to become involved in a conflict and when not to; listens to peers and subordinates ideas in order to improve overall processes; continuously sets benchmarks to improve performance; states opinions even if they might be unpopular.

Cluster 3: Coaching Leadership

The Coaching Leadership cluster is a measure of one's ability to influence, inspire, and effectively develop other team members. Essentially, this is a measure of one's ability to help others grow and evolve as a professional. This cluster provides a snapshot of the leader's skill in helping other's shine. This cluster is comprised of the Developing Others, Coaching, Builds Trust, and Training Utilization competencies.

One of the essential skills of leadership is making those around you better. This cluster is an indicator of one's ability to do just that. Individuals with high scores on this cluster may find it easy to motivate and inspire others and open doors for others to grow and contribute to the organization. Leaders who produce high scores on these competencies are probably looked to by many in the organization to help develop talent. These individuals are capable of boosting others' strengths and confidence, and regularly provide key coaching experiences for many in the organization.

Low scorers on this cluster may find it difficult to identify, develop, and maintain key coaching relationships. Indeed, a low score on these competencies indicate difficulty in tailoring communication and work styles to unique situations and co-workers. Individuals who score low on the Coaching Leadership cluster may lack the ability to help others reach their optimal performance level. Those who score below average for the work group on this cluster may want to focus on new ways to provide meaningful feedback to others, develop greater skill in assessing others' talents and areas of growth, and identify new ways to coach those around them.


8: Developing Others
Encourages employees to see themselves as leaders; communicates goals or a vision that motivates others; inspires employees to achieve exceptional results; aligns the team with organization's goals and mission; provides opportunities for others to grow and contribute; coaches employees to help them achieve success; focuses on developing the effectiveness of entire team; tailors communication style appropriately to different employees and situations; empowers others to make decisions.

9: Coaching
Successfully coaches employees through conflict in the workplace; knows when to use informal versus formal corrective actions; brings out the strengths in those around them; provides feedback that is accurate and helpful for improving performance.

10: Builds Trust
Behaves in a way that builds trust; is open and candid with people; asks for feedback.

11: Training Utilization
The last competency in this cluster, Training Utilization, is determined by one behavior or leadership action. Managers were simply asked about the frequency in which they effectively utilize available training resources for team development. The purpose of this question was to get a feel for how many and to what degree managers within the organization utilize existing training resources to develop the team, as this was identified as a highly important role of managers at various levels throughout the organization. High scores on the Training Utilization competency indicate frequent and effective use of available training resources while low scores indicate less frequent and/or effective use of training resources for team development. Utilization of available training resources is essential to effective coaching and most likely plays a vital role in boosting team performance to optimal levels.

Cluster 4: Collaborative Leadership

The Collaborative Leadership cluster is a measure of one's ability to form meaningful networks within the organization, rally support for important initiatives, identify and maintain key internal partnerships, and work with various constituencies in an effort to boost performance. This cluster is also comprised of the Communication, Social Insight, and Self and Other Awareness competencies.

High scorers on the Collaborative Leadership scale are most likely seen by others as especially perceptive to forming lasting partnerships. These individuals are typically looked to in the organization to rally support for important initiatives. High scores indicate the ability to consider various perspectives in the decision-making process and collaborate with diverse work groups to effectively form lasting partnerships. Finally, high scores may indicate a keen ability to identify one's own and other's strengths and weaknesses. These leaders most likely demonstrate awareness of who the "right" people are to be involved in a project or initiative, and then form partnerships to get those individuals involved.

Scores below the mean on the Collaborative Leadership cluster indicate some difficulty in forming lasting partnerships in the organization. Leaders who score lower than average may experience difficulty maintaining key internal and external relationships essential to organizational effectiveness. Further, a below average Collaborative Leadership score may indicate a deficit in effectively taking different units concerns and interests into consideration when making key decisions. A low score on this cluster also may indicate a perception by others of being inaccessible to employees and subordinates, and some difficulty collaborating with diverse co-workers. Part of being able to develop essential business partnerships is the ability to recognize who possesses the skill set necessary for the team to excel. Thus, low scores may stem from a deficit in recognizing the strengths and weaknesses of other employees in the organization.


12: Collaboration
Is accessible to employees and subordinates; collaborates effectively with others; takes different units within the organization into consideration when making decisions; considers various perspectives when making a decision; collaborates with diverse co-workers.

13: Negotiates Partnerships
Creates partners to promote the performance of the entire organization; is able to rally support for important initiatives.

14: Networks
Identifies relationships that are important to build and maintain; maintains key external business relationships for the organization; negotiates effectively with other units in the organization to get things done; connects with people at all levels of the organization; recognizes people for good performance; knows how to get things done in the organization.

15: Social Insight
Understands generational difference; identifies high potential candidates.

16: Communication
Is clear when delegating responsibilities; gives clear directions; is able to communicate a clear vision for the team.

The Communication competency is especially important to this cluster. It is a measure of the leader's ability to delegate in a clear manner. These items also assess the ability to clearly articulate a vision, tasks, or a plan of action.

High Communication competency scores indicate an ability to clearly articulate a vision for the team. Leaders who score high in Communication are most likely capable of successfully delegating responsibilities and directions to subordinates. Individuals that score above the mean are probably skilled at describing a problem in a language that a wide spectrum of people can understand.

Low Communication scores suggest difficulty in dividing and assigning responsibilities in a fair, clear manner. Managers who score below the mean on this competency may experience some difficulty in making assignments, delegating, or giving directions.

17: Self and Other Awareness
Accurately identifies his/her own strengths and weaknesses; recognizes where others are in the professional development process; gets the right people on board to complete projects.

Cluster 5: Composed Leadership

The Composed Leadership cluster is a snap shot of the leader's ability to handle pressure effectively, manage multiple systems to achieve a coordinated result, and demonstrate emotional control in the face of criticism and set backs. This cluster is primarily comprised of self-confidence, resilience, and adaptability to the work and various situations that may present themselves in the course of leadership in the organization.

Leaders who produce high Composed Leadership cluster scores most likely demonstrate an advanced understanding of how their behaviors and actions effect the emotions of those around them. They most likely demonstrate poise in the face of adversity and are capable of managing multiple systems at once. Further, high scorers typically manage their own life effectively. They spend their time wisely and set a high standard for personal and social behavior at work.

Low scores on the Composed Leadership cluster may experience some difficulty understanding how they are effecting the emotions of others, find it hard to read other's emotions, handle constructive feedback poorly, and tend to display a negative perception quicker then most. Below average scores may indicate a tendency to fold under pressure or experience elevated levels of stress when asked to manage multiple systems at once.


18: Composed

Handles external pressure effectively; demonstrates an ability to manage multiple systems to achieve a coordinated result; demonstrates the ability to utilize data from multiple sources to enhance operating effectiveness; consistently makes the effort to hear and reconcile diverse opinions; is self-confident.

19: Emotional Competence & Control
Demonstrates awareness of how his or her own actions effect the emotions of others; able to recognize his/her own emotional reaction to people, events, and situations; responds well to emotions of others; responds well to criticism; is able to understand how others feel about a decision or situation; conveys a positive outlook.

20: Self-Discipline
Manages self effectively; spends (prioritizes) time wisely; sets an example for professional behavior both social and interpersonal; willingly takes on new challenges.

Cluster 6: Driven Leadership

The Driven Leadership cluster is a measure of effectiveness and productivity. It consists of the Initiative, Drive for Results & Follow Through, and Customer-Focus competencies. This cluster is predominately a measure of the leader's ability to take initiative at work, demonstrate behaviors associated with drive and hunger, ability to meet performance goals, and focus on customer needs in completing the work.

High scorers on this cluster get the job done! Individuals who score high on this cluster tend to by highly motivated, perceived by others as disciplined in their working habits, and committed to the work. Elevated scores on this cluster indicate that this leader is someone who needs little encouragement to get the job done. They most likely maintain a focus on customer needs and interests and strive for excellence in delivery.

Low scores on this cluster suggest a tendency to fail to prioritize projects and may procrastinate at work. It is not uncommon for low Driven Leadership cluster scorers to also experience a lack of focus, drive, or inability to complete projects by the deadline established. Low scores indicate a tendency to avoid new challenges and establish a work ethic that is considered good enough to get by.


21: Initiative

Anticipates what needs to be done and does it; challenges self to improve; takes action before being forced to do so by events.

22: Drive for Results & Follow Through
Delivers what is promised; demonstrates drive and hunger; strives for excellence by setting challenging goals; consistently meets performance goals.

23: Customer-Focus
Always keeps the customer in mind; demonstrates awareness of customer needs; anticipates future customer trends; works tirelessly to ensure customer satisfaction; prioritizes projects based on customer needs.

The Customer-Focus competency is a measure of behaviors associated with high levels of customer satisfaction and delivery of superior consumer relations services. The general intention of this competency is to have a measure of the degree of awareness and understanding the leader possesses about the customer's needs and interests.

High scores on the Customer-Focus scale indicate awareness of customer needs. Elevated scores also may suggest a focus on customer needs and satisfaction in all services provided. Managers with high scores on this competency probably anticipate future consumer trends and effectively prioritize their work to adequately meet these needs.

Low scores on the Customer-Focus cluster indicate a potential lack of acknowledgement or attention to customer needs and expectations. Individuals with low scores in this skill area most likely devote a majority their attention to factors behind business decisions other than the customer's needs. Further, leaders who score lower than the average in this area may base decisions or prioritize their work on factors other than customer needs and expectations.

Appendix I

Resources for Development

Cluster 1: Credible Leadership

Reading List

Credibility: How Leaders Gain and Lose It, Why People Demand It, Revised Edition, 2003 by J. M. Kouzes & B. Z. Posner.

The Leadership Integrity Challenge: Assessing and Facilitating Emotional Maturity, Expanded Second Edition by Edward E. Morler.

Ethics 101: What Every Leader Needs To Know (101 Series) by John C. Maxwell.

The Integrity Dividend: Leading by the Power of Your Word by Tony Simons.

Action Steps

• Spend time in lower level positions doing similar job duties to those you manage. If you are lacking credibility based on technical expertise, go back to the basics of your organization and relearn to perform some of the more basic, technical aspects of the work (i. e. , teach yourself to operate a snow plow). This will allow you to gain more perspective of the job from your direct reports point of view.

• Seek feedback from subordinates and peers on how they approach managing multiple systems and data points at once.

• Revisit safety protocols and policies that have been established by the organization. After reviewing current safety policies, think through past experiences when these measures were not followed. Attempt to identify ways to improve safety practices to be more in line with the policies you have revisited and maybe have not done as good of a job following as you would like.

Cluster 2: Innovative Leadership

Reading List

Becoming a Strategic Leader: Your Role in Your Organization's Enduring Success (J-B CCL (Center for Creative Leadership)) by Richard L. Hughes and Katherine M. Beatty (Hardcover - Feb. 16, 2005).

The Innovative Leader: How to Inspire Your Team and Drive Creativity.

Strategic Thinking – Essential Managers Series by Bruce & Langdon (2000).

Action Steps

• A strategy is a declaration of intent, defining where you want to be in the long-term. Prior to going in to meetings or beginning initiatives in your department, ask yourself what you hope to accomplish. Set goals to develop a clear vision based on measurable outcomes.

• Follow a strategic framework: Analyze information to understand your position → Pinpoint your competitive advantage → Define the scope of your products and markets → Decide where you want to focus your resources → Identify, prioritize, and implement change → Continuously monitor performance and review strategy (Ali, Brookson, Bruce, Eaton, Heller, Johnson, Langdon, & Sleight, 2009).

• If you are unsure of the strategy of your organization, ask your superior to clarify it for you.

• Take time to improve your understanding of generational differences in the office by spending time with members of various age groups. Ask for input and opinions from all age groups to be sure each generation feels heard and is represented in decisions.

Cluster 3: Coaching Leadership

Reading List

The CCL Handbook of Coaching: A Guide for the Leader Coach (Center for Creative Leadership) by Sharon Ting & Peter Scisco.

Coaching Questions: A Coach's Guide to Powerful Asking Skills by Tony Stoltzfus.

Action Steps

• Coaching is simply the art of improving the performance of others by helping them gain clarity about themselves. Developing stronger listening and attending skills can greatly aid in this process.

• Structure coaching sessions: Definition (determine performance goals) → Analysis (understand the present reality and your coachee) → Exploration (explore options to achieve goals) → Action (say when tasks will be done) → Learning (implement agreed actions) → Feedback (review progress at next session).

• Identify a leader in the organization who exemplifies coaching skills and the ability to develop others' talents. Make sure it is someone who actively seeks out the coaching role and is known throughout the organization as a talent coach. Ask this individual if you could either observe their work with another manager or if you could spend time talking with them about their approach to coaching and mentoring other leaders.

Cluster 4: Collaborative Leadership

Reading List

Collaboration: How Leaders Avoid the Traps, Create Unity, and Reap Big Results by Morten T. Hansen.

Retiring the Generation Gap: How Employees Young and Old Can Find Common Ground (J-B CCL (Center for Creative Leadership)) [Hardcover] by Jennifer J. Deal.

Crucial Conversations: Tools for Talking When Stakes are High by Kerry Patterson, Joseph Grenny, Ron McMillan, Al Switzler, and Stephen R. Covey.

Action Steps

• Take a moment to reflect on previous decisions. Evaluate for yourself how much you really sought other's input. Identify at least two times you could have incorporated more collaboration on the decision. In your decision-making process, look for similar opportunities to arise to incorporate others in the decision-making process. This will boost collaboration and provide a sense of more credibility in your leadership approach.

• In regards to developing communication skills, think about what dialogue really is. Dialogue is the free flow of ideas between two people. In dialogue, whatever anyone has to say is to be listened to and allowed to stand just as it is. There is no such thing as a "wrong idea". But there may well be contradictory ideas, or just different ideas. So our first priority is to listen to what is said by everyone.

• Watch for emotional hooks in communication. Emotional hooks are those aspects of communication that steer us away from the real goal of the dialogue or relationship and cause us to lose track of communicating in a clear manner. Emotional hooks in communication can lead to irrational ideas and prevent partnerships from taking shape.

Cluster 5: Composed Leadership

Reading List

Quick Emotional Intelligence Activities for Busy Managers: 50 Team Exercises That Get Results in Just 15 Minutes by Adele B. Lynn (Paperback - Jan. 29, 2007).

Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman, Richard E. Boyatzis, & Annie McKee.

Action Steps

• If you notice that you are losing confidence and composure during key meetings or engagements, attempt to identify what thoughts are surfacing for you in the situation. Challenge self-statements that are leading to difficulty for you by focusing on the confident statements. Build on your strengths rather than focusing on your weaknesses. Ask yourself, what the small successes I am having in regards to keeping my composure? You are most likely already doing a lot right, focus on that instead of what you are doing wrong. This will automatically shift your focus to strengths and in return boost your confidence.

• Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage your emotions in positive and constructive ways. It's about recognizing your own emotional state and the emotional states of others. Emotional intelligence is also about engaging with others in ways that draw people to you.

• A key skill of emotional intelligence is having a moment-to-moment awareness of your emotions and how they influence your thoughts and actions. Emotional awareness is the key to understanding yourself and others. Attempt to gain insight into your emotions throughout the day by asking yourself periodically what you are experiencing, and how that state is effecting your decisions, leadership skills, and partnerships.

Cluster 6: Driven Leadership

Reading List

Intrinsic Motivation at Work: What Really Drives Employee Engagement by Kenneth Wayne Thomas.

The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen R. Covey.

Leader Effectiveness Training L.E.T.: The Proven People Skills for Today's Leaders Tomorrow by Thomas Gordon.

Becoming an Effective Leader (Results Driven Manager) by Harvard Business School Press (Editor).

Action Steps

• The congruence between one's vocational interests and/or competencies and their work has been termed person-environment fit. Greater PE fit has been found to contribute greatly to one's motivation level. In other words, the greater the match between your interests and what you do for work, the more motivated and committed to the job you may be. Though you cannot always choose what you do at work, and at times will be asked to complete tasks dissimilar to your interests, taking an active approach in creating the best match out of your job as possible can pay off in the initiative and drive department. One potential action plan to improve drive, initiative, and overall commitment to the job is to gain insight about your personality, vocational interests, and work values, and then attempt to align your work life with those aspects. This will most likely aid in boosting your motivation to achieve.

• Identify motivators that are important to you in order to rely less on external motivators, such as pay. For example, maybe you are motivated by the customers you serve, contributing to a state initiative, etc. Identify and work toward those internal life motivators.

• Select jobs that provide the opportunity for you to work as hard as you want and in which you are encouraged to measure your own productivity.

Appendix II

Additional Training and Development Resources


Managing for Excellence (2009). Ali M. Brookson, S. Bruce, A. Eaton, J. Heller, R. Johnson. R. Langdon, DK Publishing, Inc., New York, NY.

Essential Manager's Manual (2001). Heller, R. & Hindle, T. DK Publishing, Inc., New York, NY.

The Oz Principle: Getting Results Through Individual and Organizational Accountability by Craig Hickman and Tom Smith. This is the essential book in leadership right now for boosting accountability.

12: The Elements of Great Managing by Rodd Wagner & James K. Harter, Ph.D. More than a decade ago, The Gallup Organization combed through its database of more than 1 million employee and manager interviews to identify the elements most important in sustaining workplace excellence. These elements were revealed in the 1999 bestseller First, Break All the Rules. 12: The Elements of Great Managing is that management classic's long-awaited sequel. It follows great managers as they implement these 12 elements.


Great Place to Work Institute provides essential research and resources on what it takes to create a great place to work. This website is stocked full of research white papers that can be utilized to develop both as a leader and a positive organizational culture. is a free on-line resource designed to help government managers cultivate a more effective and motivated public sector workforce.

***Correspondence regarding this report and the results presented within including questions about the competencies, clusters, or what your scores indicate should be addressed to either Dr. Patrick Sherry at or Michael Durr at